+Black Henbane (Hyoscyamus nigra)+
Ethnobotanist Wolf-Dieter Storl has conjectured that henbane has been in use for ritual and shamanic purposes in Eurasia since Paleolithic times. Black Henbane is the most widely distributed species of all. It grows from Europe to Asia, from the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia. It has now become naturalized in North America and Australia.
It was used as a ritual plant by the pre-Indo-European people of central Europe. An urn of henbane seeds along with bones and snail shells was unearthed in Austria from the Early Bronze Age. It was believed, according to Carl Ruck, that henbane, known as hyoskyamos, was sacred to Deo-Demeter-Persephone due to her sacred animal being the sow, for one translation of henbane’s name was derived from the term “pig bean”.
It was used elsewhere in Europe as well. In Celtic regions, the plant was belinuntia “the plant of the sun god Bel”. The Gauls poisoned their javelins with a decoction of henbane, while the Medieval Anglo-Saxon herbals mentioned its medicinal uses. Albertus Magnus, in his De Vegetabilibus (ca. 1250) stated that necromancers used the smoke to invoked the souls of the dead, as well as demons. Henbane takes a more erotic turn in the Medieval bathhouses of the Late Middle Ages, where the seeds were strewn over hot coals to incite, how do we say, titillating feelings.
The associations between henbane and witchcraft as we know them today began in the Middle Ages,
“The witches drank the decoction of henbane and had those dreams for which they were tortured and executed. It was used for witches ointments and was used for making weather and conjuring spirits. If there was a great drought, then a stalk of henbane would be dipped into a spring and the sun baked sand would be sprinkled with this” (Perger 1864, 181).
It was especially associated with divination and love magic. After monkshood, it was also a favorite of poisoners. It was also believed that carrying the root on one’s person would render them invulnerable to the witchcraft of others. Fight poison with poison perhaps? The smoke of the leaves was used to make one invisible, and it was smoked in a pipe to achieve this purpose. Oleum hyoscyamin infusum (henbane oil), was made by infusing the leaves on gentle heat in oil. This made for a fine erotic massage oil or therapeutic treatment for soreness. As we shall see, if any plants were truly used in witches ointments, it would most likely be henbane.
Henbane was also used as an ingredient in psychoactive beer, which ended with the Bavarian Purity Laws in 1516. Even though its use in ritual was namely as an incense (seeds), the Germans loved their henbane beers so, they planted gardens of henbane just for this purpose which were under the protection of Woden/Odin, father of Donar. These henbane gardens have left their mark on Germany’s history with place names like Bilsensee (Henbane Lake) and Billendorf (Henbane village).
The seeds were used by the Assyrians as well, combined with sulfur to protect against magic. Persian visionaries also undertook astral journeys under the influence of henbane wines and concoctions. The Celts knew black henbane as beleno and burnt it as an offering to Belenus, the god of oracles and the sun. Druids and bards also inhaled the smoke to travel to the realms of the Fae and Otherworldly beings.
The Vikings placed considerable importance on henbane, which we know due to hundreds of seeds found in graves. A woman known as the Fyrkat woman was unearthed in Denmark wearing a pouch of henbane seeds. The earliest known record that mentions Germanic uses of the plant come from the time of Bishop Burchard von Worms who passed in 1025. It describes a confessional in great detail that illustrates a rain ritual,
“...they gather several girls and select from these a small maiden as a kind of leader. They disrobe her and take her out of the settlement to a place where they can find hyoscyamus, which is known as bilse in German. They have her pull this out with the little finger of the right hand and tie the uprooted plant to the small toe of the right foot with any kind of string. Then the girls, each of whom is holding a rod in her hands, lead the aforementioned maiden to the next river, pulling the plant behind her. The girls then use the rods to sprinkle the young maiden with river water, and in this way they hope to cause rain through their magic. They they take the young maiden, as naked as she is, who puts down her feet and moves herself in the manner of a crab, by the hands and lead her from the river back to the settlement.”
The seeds served as fumigants for necromantic arts, and to conjure the dead for Renaissance magical practitioners, as it does today. Foundational occultist Agrippa writes in 1531,
“So, they say, that if of coriander, smallage, henbane, and hemlock, be made a fume, that spirits will presently come together; hence they are called spirit's herbs. Also, it is said, that fume made of the root of the reedy herb sagapen, with the juice of hemlock and henbane, and the herb tapsus barbatus, red sanders, and black poppy, makes spirits and strange shapes appear; and if smallage be added to them, the fume chaseth away spirits from any place and destroys their visions.”
-Henry Cornelious Agrippa p.137
The root was also used as an amulet. Alexander of Tralles (CE 550) frequently prescribed a mixture of an amulet and wise words designed to create magical protection. He was a follower of Gnosticism, a complex religious movement which flourished in the pre- and early Christian era. One of his prescribed amulets was henbane root hung about the neck of a patient for magical pain relief. Then again for gout, some henbane, when the moon is in Aquarius or Pisces, before sunset, must be dug up with the thumb and third finger of the left hand, and it must be said,
“I declare, I declare holy wort, to thee; I invite thee tomorrow to the house of Fileas, to stop the rheum of the feet of M. or N. and say, I invoke thee, the great name, Jehovah, Sabaoth, the God who steadied the earth and stayed the sea, the filler of flowing rivers, who dried up Lot’s wife, and made her a pillar of salt, take the breath of thy mother earth and her power, and dry the rheum of the feet or hands of N. or M. The next day, before sunrise, take a bone of some dead animal, and dig the root up with this bone, and say, I invoke thee by the holy name Iao, Sabaoth, Adonai, Eloi, and put on the root one handful of salt, saying, ‘As this salt will not increase, so may not the disorder of N. or M.’ And hang the end of this root [henbane] periapt on the sufferer."
So intimately tied was this plant with thoughts of witchery, that possession of it was enough to convict one of witchcraft. There are many mentions of it in 16th 17th and century witch trials as proof of malevolent intent. With the advent of the Bavarian beer purity laws, henbane fell from popular usage to await rediscovery by those hungry for magic centuries later.
*Overdose of henbane can lead to dryness of mouth, locomotor disturbances, farsightedness, coma, respiratory paralysis and death. The lethal dose is not known*
The entire plants contains tropane alkoloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine, aposcopolamine, norscopolamine, littorine, tropine, cuscohygrine, tigloidine, and tigloyloxytropane.
Few people today know as much as Cody Dickerson about henbane today, and last year at Viridis Genii Symposium I had the pleasure of listening to his lecture about this mysterious and lovely plant. I can't wait for my 3rd trip to the West to see my colleagues and beloved friends at this amazing conference on all things folk magical botanical.
Agrippa, Henry Cornelius. The Philosophy of Natural Magic. L. W. de Laurence ed. 1913. Originally published in 1531-3, De occulta philosophia libri tres, (Three books of Occult Philosophy) proposed that magic existed, and it could be studied and used by devout Christians, as it was derived from God, not the Devil. Agrippa had a huge influence on Renaissance esoteric philosophers, particularly Giordano Bruno.
Bevan-Jones, Robert. Poisonous Plants : A Cultural And Social History. Oxford: Windgather Press, 2009.
Friend, Hilderic. Flower Lore. Rockport, MA: Para Research, 1981.
Hansen, Harold A. The Witch's Garden. York Beach: Samuel Weiser, 1983. Print.
Höfler, Max. "Volksmedizinische Botanik Der Germanen." 1908.
Hyslop, Jon, and Paul Ratcliffe. A Folk Herbal. Oxford: Radiation, 1989.
Jiménez-Mejías, M.E.; Montaño-Díaz, M.; López Pardo, F.; Campos Jiménez, E.; Martín Cordero, M.C.; Ayuso González, M.J. & González de la Puente, M.A. (1990-11-24). "Intoxicación atropínica por Mandragora autumnalis: descripción de quince casos [Atropine poisoning by Mandragora autumnalis: a report of 15 cases]". Medicina Clínica. 95 (18): 689–692.
Moldenke, Harold N. and Alma L. Moldenke. Plants of the Bible. New York, NY: The Ronald Press Company, 1952.
Netter, M. W. "The "Mandrake" Medical Superstition." The Medical Standard. Vol. III. Chicago: G.P. Englehard, 1888. 173-75.
Perger, von K. Ritter. 1864. Deutsche Pflanzensagen. Stuttgart and Oehringen: Schaber.
Raedisch, Linda. Night of the Witches: Folklore, Traditions & Recipes for Celebrating Walpurgis Night. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 2011.
RaÌtsch, Christian. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester, VT: Park Street, 2005.
Oak trees may be one of the most iconic old fellows of the forest. The acorn and the oak are rich with symbolism and magic much used and appreciated by many, many cultures worldwide. Acorns feed us in the fall, and there is also much to be said about the incredible edibility of these abundance sources of food in our temperate forests. Check out my friends Amber and Osker over at Glorious Forest for information about how to eat and enjoy acorns. Osker has taught me so much about the mighty oak. As the deep chill of winter has settled like a silver mantle over our shoulders, I think about what I can forage and nourish myself with.
Right now I dine on bittercress, wild onions, and bark. Yes! Bark. I am a bark eater, and perhaps you are too? Abby Artemesia and I are teaching a class on Edible and Medicinal trees at the end of the month, and it got me thinking. Learning how to harvest barks without harming the tree is very important, as well as processing methods and more. I am also curious as always, as to where the magic of these beings enters into the foodways? I want to talk about oak and how it is used in Appalachian folk medicine and magic extensively, as well as a surprising use in food in times past.
Quickly, let’s meet oak:
“An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta (silky oaks) and the Casuarinaceae (she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic. The second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains approximately 100 species.”
Here in Appalachia we have quite a few species. White oak, Northern and Southern Red Oak, Black oak, Swamp oak, Chestnut oak...the lists goes on depending in what specific climate you dwell in here. While oaks are best known among foragers for their robust harvests of nuts, the bark also has a fantastical history of use in medicine and magic. As we often see, there is a thin line between the two.
Medicinally in the mountains white oak bark tea was used by Pennsylvania Germans as a Spring and Fall tonic for children. The direction from which the bark is harvested also depends upon the season: The bark is taken off the north side of the trees in the spring and off the south side in the fall. I often, when possible, like to involved directional magics in harvesting to bring in the fire of the south or the cooling earth of the north, this can energetically and magically enhance a recipe.
It was also used in charms for toothache. In Alabama is was said to cure a toothache you should go into a lonely part of the woods with someone of the opposite sex, who should carry an ax. The bearer of the ax chops around the roots of a white oak, cuts off, with a large jack knife, nine splinters from roots of the tree, then cuts around the roots of the aching tooth with the knife, dips each of the splinters in the blood that flows from these cuts, and finally buries the splinters at the foot of the tree from which they came. While doing this a secret charm was spoken. The water from a white oak stump was also used to wash away warts, so long as you aren’t seen by anyone while doing it. This same water was also said to remove freckles.
Red oak bark was more often used in Southern Folk medicine. Alabama herbalist Tommie Bass suggested boiled Red oak bark to soak the feet in it to remove hard calluses. He also suggested 2-3 cups of red oak bark tea a day for cirrhosis of the liver, often in combination with wild cherry bark. All oaks contain differing amounts of tannins, sometimes enough to tan leather. These were useful medicinally for a variety of ailments and sometimes as tonics. It was used as a tea to both bathe in and drink for rheumatism. It was also used as a tonic to keep the blood cool in the spring, and fevers down, specifically by using the bark peeled from the north side of a red oak tree. The same keeps the fires going in winter. The rise and fall of the blood is a foundational modality in Southern Folk medicine and its best to think of blood in a person like the sap of a tree.
Further medicinal uses in folk medicine aided by red oak’s astringency are for boils, make a poultice of fresh red oak bark between the outer rind and the tree, boil, and mix with corn meal. A poultice recipe from North Carolina called for red oak bark and sage made into a tea, mixed with borax, sulphur, and honey for boils. For diphtheria, take red oak bark and boil it to make a tea and rinse out the throat. (In diphtheria a terrible whitish coating comes over the throat). Red oak bark tea is was also a cure for dysentery, which perhaps speaks to it’s astringent powers best. Sometimes just chewing red or live oak bark or buds was enough. The tea mixed with honey was also used for sore throats to tighten the inflamed tissue as well as in a muslin bag boiled hot for a bleeding tooth socket after an extraction.
Red oak bark as also included in remedies for malaria with the fevers and chills that accompanied this dreaded disease, especially by black medical practitioners in the more coastal southern regions. They would sometimes mix other herbs in live privet roots and Jerusalem oak. In slave communities the red oak bark was also used generally for fevers and chills, sometimes mixing it with horehound and black snakeroot in whiskey.
Magically, the rich history of wart whispering and charming is often reliant upon the oak. It is said to cure a wart, prick it, and wipe the drop of blood off with a rag; then bore a hole in a white oak tree, and put a peg in to hold the rag in place. Then whisper to the wart every night for nine nights, 'Be gone,' and it will disappear. This transference magic is seen with different tree species, but very often, the lone, shading oak which stood beside a farmhouse was pocked with marks from holes bored to secret away various bits of folk cure paraphernalia. This same measuring and plugging technique was used for diseases like asthma and other childhood conditions by plugging a lock of an affected child’s hair into a hole bored on the tree marking their height. When they outgrew the hole, they would outgrow the disease.
Madame Grieve speaks to it’s other ethnobotanical uses,
“The bark is universally used to tan leather, and for this purpose strips easily in April and May. An infusion of it, with a small quantity of copperas, yields a dye which was formerly used in the country to dye woollen of a purplish colour, which, though not very bright, was said to be durable. The Scotch Highlanders used it to dye their yarn.”
Harvesting bark is an important skill when making herbal medicine. It is, however, one of the harvesting techniques in which the most care is needed. You can easily damage or even kill a tree with improper harvesting. Here's a look at harvesting bark in general.
Picking a Tree or Shrub: Often, the best time to harvest barks is in fall. As the tree or shrub draws its chemicals and other compounds into its roots, they will be more readily available in the bark. It can be a lot of work, so make sure if you’re going to the effort to harvest bark, that you have enough time and energy to see it to completion. Also, pick a tree or shrub that is small so you can reach it easily and so you don’t have to cut the whole thing down to get a branch.
Medicinal Trees and Woody Shrubs: Some include willow, cherry, witch hazel, sassafras, birch, , spicebush, black haw, alder, hawthorn, pines, bayberry root bark (use like goldenseal), blackberry root bark, prickly ash, slippery elm, cramp bark, cottonwood and many others.
The Harvest: Choose a small branch no larger than your arm. Locate the collar, or the fattest part of the branch, at a point where the branch branches or against the trunk as shown in this image. Use a saw to cleanly cut the branch beyond the collar, NOT INTO IT pparallel with the collar. This can damage the tree and cause rot. You can cut bottom (cut 1) up first if the branch is large, then down (cut 2) as in the picture above to ensure water won’t pool in your cut and cause rot either.
Processing the Bark: This is best done on sunny, dry days to ensure your bark doesn’t get wet on a tarp or cloth so you can catch all your bark pieces. Start out by removing any small twigs not worth shaving the bark off of, as you can save those for medicine whole, with your pruners or knife. Next, saw your branch into manageable pieces, not
too small so you can hold them easily, and not so big they are unwieldy. Brace them on the cloth or tarp in front of you and, using your sharp knife, slice away from you in slow, even cuts to take off strips of bark as well as the cambium which is the moist inner bark. Make sure not to cut too deep and take off lots of wood with your strips.
Using Bark for Medicine: You can dry bark and store it for later in airtight jars, or you can tincture it dry or fresh. Dry it on sheets or screens out of direct sunlight in a place with good ventilation, making sure to stir it up every day/ couple of days to ensure it dries evenly and doesn’t mold. Barks are denser than other plant materials so tincture the bark at 1:3 or 1:4 for a fresh tincture or 1:4 or 1:5 for a dried tincture. Most barks do best with a lower alcohol content: 50% 60% alcohol for a fresh tincture or 40% 50% for a dried tincture. Dried bark is useful for tea, poultices, baths, salves, or to save for making syrups or tinctures when needed.
Oak bark apparently was sometimes eaten as well. Check out this Rice Porridge recipe from Tudor England.
To make fine Ri(c)e Porredge.
Take halfe a pound of Iordyn (Jordan) Almon(d)s, and halfe a. li. of Ryce (Rice) and a gallon of running water, & a handful of Oke (Oak) barke, and let the bark be boyled in the running water, & the Almons beten with the hulles and all on, & so strayned to make the Rice Porrege withal.
-The treasurie of hidden secrets, by John Partridge, published in 1573.
Cavender, Anthony. "Folk Hematology in the Appalachian South." Journal of Folklore Research, 1992. 23.
Cavender, Anthony P. Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Cavender, A. "Folk medical uses of plant foods in southern Appalachia, United States." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108, (January 1, 2006): 74-84.
Covey, Herbert C. African American Slave Medicine: Herbal and non-Herbal Treatments. Lexington Books, 2008.
Davis, Donald E. Southern United States: an Environmental History. ABC-CLIO, 2006.
Light, Phyllis D. "A History of Southern and Appalachian Folk Medicine." Journal of the American Herbalists Guild, vol. 8, no. 2, Mar. 2008, all pages.
Moss, Kay. Southern Folk Medicine, 1750-1820. University of South Carolina Press, 1999.
More Web Resources on Barks!
https://oldwaysherbal.wordpress.com/2014/11/04/barkharvestethicalwildcrafting/ http://www.skillsforwildlives.com/2010/06/responsiblyharvestingwoodcraftmaterials/ http://joybileefarm.com/willowbarkforherbalremedies/ http://www.saforestrymag.co.za/articles/detail/sustainble_management_of_bark_harvesting_for_tra ditional_medicine
http://www.blueridgeschool.org/blog/2015/05/01/timeforbarkharvest http://www.motherearthnews.com/naturalhealth/blackberrymedicinaluseszmaz92aszshe.aspx https://theherbarium.wordpress.com/2009/03/08/harvestingmakingspecifictinctures2/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PY6jJt4_teU making cherry bark medicine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I89v8FwHIdM edible and medicinal trees
The snow has fallen in record inches here in Barnardsville North Carolina and taken with it the last leaves of Fall. Our pond has a thin sheet of ice and the chickens huddle and cluck, annoyed as they gaze out of their coop at the snow covered ground. It is starting to feel a lot like Solstice. I love this season, especially now that I live somewhere with a real fireplace to cuddle near and drink hot teas by. I’ve spent many winters without heat for various reasons, and I have to say, I do not relish being chilled. The warmth of a fire, and the companionship of loved ones is a special treat I cannot go without in Winter.
I love to cook. I do it nearly daily. I make myself breakfast, or dinner for my partner and I or for our big chosen family. This season I will slow cook pork with our homegrown frozen collard greens, golden onions and pale garlic cloves, snip the cold hardy dead nettles from the greenhouse and fry them into eggie fritters. I’ll dish up big bowls of breakfast oatmeal with black walnuts and dried apples on top, all melting with butter of course, and dollop my raw milk yoghurt with peach jam made by a friend and relish the sunshine she captured in this glass jar. All the while teas of black birch, virginia pine, spicebush twig and hemlock needles steam on the stovetop, filling our kitchen with a heavenly scent of winter. I love eating this season. I love drinking this season.
To help ease you into the mood of Winter Solstice, Yuletide, I bring you a small selection of the Herbaria of the Winter Solstice as we prepare for the Solace of Winter this Saturday.
Pine: (Pinus spp.)
Pine trees have books worth of lore and ethnobotanical uses. We’ll just skim the surface to find that which we can cozy into for winter. This season we know the pine family as the emblematic Christmas tree, or to some, the solstice tree. It is difficult to tell from exactly where this practice comes from, but it is a guess that it could be a melding of pagan and christian beliefs: the old Roman custom of decorating houses with laurels and green trees at the Kalends of January, and the Christian belief that on every Christmas Eve apple and other trees blossomed and bore fruit. This christian beleif stems from the legend of St. Joseph of Arimathea. When the saint settled at Glastonbury in England he planted his staff in the earth and it put forth leaves and it blossomed every Christmas Eve.
We know from Libanius, Tertullian, and Chrysostom that Romans decorated with ever greenery. Tertullian lets us know of his distaste for this pagan practice when he says;
“Let them,” he says of the heathen, “kindle lamps, they who have no light; let them fix on the doorposts laurels which shall afterwards be burnt, they for whom fire is close at hand; meet for them are testimonies of darkness and auguries of punishment. But thou,” he says to the Christian, “art a light of the world and a tree that is ever green; if thou hast renounced temples, make not a temple of thy own house-door.”
-Christmas in Ritual and Tradition, by Clement A. Miles, 
It was also said the Druids decorated their huts with evergreens during winter as a winter home for the sylvan spirits. It was Germany, however who is often credited for popularizing the practice of keeping a Christmas tree as we know today. The Lutherans specifically are credited with decorating them and keeping one as we know it was already popular by the 18th century. They were also taken to North America by German settlers as early as the 17th century, Christmas trees were the height of fashion by the 19th century. They were also popular in Austria, Switzerland, Poland, and the Netherlands.
In Appalachia, it is said that the Pine trees minister to a diseased mind. This spirit lifting accompanied by pine is further reason to bring some greenery inside. Mrs. Maude Minish Sutton, Lenoir, Caldwell county. "You can take the achinest heart on earth into a big pine woods and let hit jist drink in the smell and singin' of the trees and crunch the needles underfoot, and you'll come out feeling better. I believe God likes the pine trees best of all his trees."
Further magic has been attributed to it, for in Bohemia it was thought that eating pine nuts could make one shot proof. In Germany, the Pine bears children, for from every hole a wood spirit may escape into the outer world, and sometimes, she may even become something like human woman. In Christian mythology, Mary rested beneath a pine in her flight and took refuge in its sweet balsam fragrance.
Almost all the Pine species are useful for medicine or food. Some of the species we have here in Appalachia that work very well for medicine are the following: White Pine (Pinus strobus), Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana), Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Juniper (Juniperus Communis), Red Spruce (Picea rubens), and Frasier Fir (Abies fraseri).
All of these trees can be used to make tea, but some are more tasty than others. I focus on White Pine, as it is abundant, easily identified and delicious. Pine can be used as a medicine for a variety of ailments, but it is best known for its vitamin C content. First Nations people of many tribes harvested pine nuts, used needles of pine, fir and spruce for teas, chewed their resin and sap, and scraped off the inner bark for dried cakes with berries. Colonists also used their wisdom to avoid scurvy (a deadly condition from lack of vitamin C). Many conifers also contain vitamins B, A, iron and a slew of minerals, antioxidants and flavonoids, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular protecting, and triglyceride reducing properties as well. Conifer needles are a great source of polyphenols which stimulate the immune system and have anti-stress, adaptogenic, and antiviral properties, making them great for colds and flu. Pine is the perfect Winter Solstice mascot, for its folklore, fragrance and its medicine.
Aside from tea, you can make infused vinegars, salts, salves, syrups, sugars and liquors from Pine. To make White Pine needle tea, all you need is some White Pine needles! See what other magical makers are making:
Conifer Recipes from Gather Victoria
Rosemary: (Rosmarinus officinalis)
“The boar's head in hand bear I,
Bedeck'd with bays and rosemary;
And I pray you, my masters, be merry,
Quot estis in convivio.
Caput apri defero,
Reddens laudes Domino. ”
The Romans say as an evergreen and that it’s odor helped to preserve the dead. This most likely aided its use as an emblem of eternity. It was also known to mean remembrance and was included in bouquets and wreaths for friendship, fidelity, bridal wreaths, and funerals. Though it is debates, rosemary may have been one of the plants that opened to hide Mary from Herrod’s soldiers. It’s periwinkle flowers have taken on the color of her mantle in the memory of Rosemary’s service to the Holy Mother. Of course it has more sinister associations in Sicily and Portugal, where it was considered a heathen plant that fairies nestle beneath disguised as snakes. This makes sense as it was once burned as an incense to the Olympian gods. Despite this it was also worn as an amulet to the evil eye.
Like other evergreens, the boughs of rosemary where also brought indoors to scent and brighten the dark halls of roman and medieval halls. It decked Christmas feasting halls and the wassail bowl. We can see it here in the “Boar’s Head Carol”, for the roasted head is a lovely Christmas dish of old. During the Middle Ages rosemary was spread on the floor at midnight on Christmas Eve so as people walked on it the fragrance would fill the air; this in the belief that those who smelled rosemary on Christmas Eve would have a year of health and happiness. Thus, started the long tradition of rosemary in Christmas wreaths and other holiday decorations.
'Down with the rosemary and so,
Down with the baies and mistletoe,
Down with the holly, ivie all
Wherewith ye deck the Christmas Hall.'
Madame Grieve has to say of the Rosemary:
“The Ancients were well acquainted with the shrub, which had a reputation for strengthening the memory. On this account it became the emblem of fidelity for lovers. It holds a special position among herbs from the symbolism attached to it. Not only was it used at weddings, but also at funerals, for decking churches and banqueting halls at festivals, as incense in religious ceremonies, and in magical spells. At weddings, it was entwined in the wreath worn by the bride, being first dipped into scented water. Anne of Cleves, we are told, wore such a wreath at her wedding. A Rosemary branch, richly gilded and tied with silken ribands of all colours, was also presented to wedding guests, as a symbol of love and loyalty. Together with an orange stuck with cloves it was given as a New Year's gift - allusions to this custom are to be found in Ben Jonson's plays.”
Rosemary makes a lovely addition to Solstice roasts, root vegetables drizzled in cider and cookies. Not only is herb a culinary powerhouse, but it is also a potent medicinal. Rosmarinic acid which occurs in the plant is a powerful antibiotic and antioxidant. The oil is used externally for skin issues, wound healing and even dandruff. It has been studied to inhibit food-borne pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, B. cereus, and S. aureus, so why not go ahead and throw it in as many dishes as possible. It has been found to aid in circulation as well. One study in humans found that long-term daily intake of rosemary prevents thrombosis. This lovely garden herb not only smells fantastic, but is a veritable medicine chest.
This recipe for Rosemary Shortbread is one of my favorites for Solstice with or without the dandelion.
The Oak (Quercus spp.) and the Holly (Ilex spp.):
The Lord is Holly, and is Oak
Two sides of one, so say our folk.
The Oak lord goes, the Holly stays,
To help us through the winter days. -Paddy Slade
The battle of the Oak King and the Holly king is often spoken of at the Solstices in modern neopagan practice. The Oak king ruling from Winter Solstice until Summer, or the waxing half of the year, and the Holly King ruling the Waning. This “legend” was born from the writings of Robert Graves in “The White Goddess” (1948). Graves proposes this oppositional pairing and gives other examples to support this theory: Graves identified a number of paired hero-figures which he believes are variants of this myth, including Lleu Llaw Gyffes and Gronw Pebr, Gwyn and Gwythr, Lugh and Balor, Balan and Balin, Gawain and the Green Knight, the robin and the wren, and even Jesus and John the Baptist.
He built upon the Divine King spoken of in Frazer’s work, “The Golden Bough”, however the Divine King of Frazer was split into the kings of winter and summer in Graves' work. While the myth of the Holly king and the Oak king as it is spoken of today is remarkably modern, it plays upon older themes of the dualities of life which have won the imaginations of so many cultures for centuries.
"But the hue of his every feature
Stunned them: as could be seen,
Not only was this creature
Colossal, he was bright green
No spear to thrust, no shield against the shock of battle,
But in one hand a solitary branch of holly
That shows greenest when all the groves are leafless;"
from 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight' ca 1370 - 1390, author unknown
In pre-Victorian times, is was often the Holly and not the Pine, Fir or Spruce that was bestowed the name of “Christmas tree”. The Holly was a sacred tree to the pre-Christian peoples of the British Isles. The Druids were said to believe the "leaves of holly offered protection against evil spirits" and thus "wore holly in their hair"(1). It’s uses in magic and divination survive even into the mountains of Appalachia today. In Appalachian folk magic, you can count the stickers of a holly leaf alphabetically, and it will help you to find out your future husband's initial. This tidbit comes from the European practice in Northumberland wherein it is used for divination as well. Nine leaves are taken and tied with nine knots into a handkerchief, and put under the pillow by a person who desires prophetic dreams.
Holly was also hung about to protect from witches, who were assumed to hate it. The lore surrounding Hawthorn, Blackthorn and other thorn bearing plants often paints them as protective and detering to witches. Pliny also tells us that when Holly is planted near a house or farm, it will repel poison, and defend it from lightning and witchcraft. He also says that the flowers cause water to freeze, and that the wood, if thrown at any animal, even without touching it, had the property of compelling the animal to return and lie down by it.
This further made Holly a perfect Christmas decoration. This may have also been due to the association of the blood-red berries and thorny leaves with the Passion. We see evidence of this in the Danish name for Holly, Kristdorn (Christ’s Thorn).
Proper handling of these plants in decorating the house was also very important. They required great care when disposing of them and removing them from the walls. In Shropshire, England, old-fashioned people never threw them away, for this would surely bring misfortune. They had to either burn them or give them to the cows. It was very unlucky to let a piece fall to the ground. The Shropshire custom was to leave the holly and ivy up until Candlemas or Imbolc, while the mistletoe-bough was carefully preserved until the time came for a new one next year.
Hawthorne (Crataegus spp.):
As I mentioned before, the thorn-ed plants often find their ways into protective displays and decorative charms. England has many sacred thorn trees, but the most famous hawthorn is the Holy Thorn of Glastonbury.
“Legend tells of how Joseph of Arimathea, the uncle of the Virgin Mary, arrived at a hill overlooking Glastonbury Tor with a few disciples and two sacred vessels containing the blood and sweat of Jesus. Where he thrust his staff into the ground it sprouted and grew into a thorn tree. Though the original is obviously not there any more, one of its supposed descendants does still stand on the hill, and other offspring grown from cuttings and perpetuated over the centuries can be found around Glastonbury and indeed further afield in England. This particular hawthorn blooms twice a year, once in May and again around Christmas. A sprig of one of these Glastonbury thorns from outside St Johns Church is traditionally sent to the Queen, who is said to decorate her breakfast table with it on Christmas morning.” -Paul Kendall
Hawthorn has much lore surrounding it. It was used to hang above doorways to keep away witchcraft and ill will. In the sharp thorns of these species, the evil would become entangled, unable to affect the dwellers within. The fae were strongly associated with this tree and its fruits and blossoms required careful handling for these reasons. For instance, bringing in the blossoming branches was seen as a sure way to bring about bad luck. The branches, however, were used on New Years Day and hung in the house to prevent fire. There is also the ritual of “burning the bush,” which still survives in Herefordshire,
“The “bush,” a globe made of hawthorn, hangs throughout the year in the farmhouse kitchen, with the mistletoe. Early on New Year's Day it “is carried to the earliest sown wheat field, where a large fire is lighted, of straw and bushes, in which it is burnt. While it is burning, a new one is made; in making it, the ends of the branches are scorched in the fire.” Burning straw is carried over twelve ridges of the field, and then follow cider-drinking and cheering.” -Miles
This tree does not just protect against evil, it is also a valuable and lovely medicine and food for midwinter. English herbalist Juliette de Bairacli Levy said that the leaf buds are called “pepper and salt” and are traditionally eaten in salads. The berries have a sweet taste but they have a very large seed. It is high in the trace minerals selenium, which is important for the immune system, and chromium, which enhances the function of insulin. It is best known for its heart medicine. Hawthorn increases the contraction of heart muscle while it relaxes blood vessels. The effect is that the heart pumps more effectively and has less resistance to pump against. This is why it can help normalize blood pressure. Hawthorn relaxes smooth muscles of the coronary artery walls and allows more blood to flow into the cells of the heart.
Elixirs for the long days of winter can be crafted from hawthorn berries, dried flowers and leaves. I love this tonic syrup from Gather Victoria. A simple hawthorn vinegar, tincture, and oxymel can be crafted in the following manner. I personally like to string and dry the berries and hang them about like the similar rose family Rowan or Mountain Ash berries, long used as protective garlands. They can then be used as you like in heart nourishing tea and other concoctions after they have decked your halls.
However you like to bring the cheer of the chill into your home, know that there is a long legacy of bringing in the evergreens and red berries of winter plants for medicine and magic.
I love books. There. I said it. I really do. I read a lot, but still not as much as I'd wish. I grabbed my old list and I'd like to improve upon it. Here is my most current reading list and resource list. It's getting cold, and there is nothing like good book, a warm drink and a hot fire.
The Foundational Texts:
Aradia or the Gospel of the Witches of Italy - Charles G. Leland
The Secret Commonwealth: An Essay on the Nature and Actions of the Subterranean (and for the Most Part) Invisible People, Heretofore Going Under the Name of Elves, Fauns, and Fairies - Robert Kirk
The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries - W.Y. Evans-Wentz
The Golden Bough - James George Frazer
The Greater Key of Solomon - Samuel L. Macgregor Mathers
The Complete Art of Witchcraft: Penetrating the Secrets of White Magic - Sybil Leek
Fifty Years in the Feri Tradition- Cora Anderson
High Magic’s Aid - Gerald Gardner
Mastering Witchcraft: A Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks & Covens - Paul Huson
Natural Magic - Doreen Valiente
Rebirth of Witchcraft - Doreen Valiente
Witchcraft for Tomorrow - Doreen Valiente
Witchcraft: a Tradition Renewed - Doreen Valiente and Evan John Jones
The Writings of Roy Bowers - (Robert Cochrane)
Apocalyptic Witchcraft - Peter Grey
The Roebuck in the Thicket - Evan John Jones & Robert Cochrane, editor Mike Howard
The Robert Cochrane Letters: An Insight into Modern Traditional Witchcraft - Robert Cochrane and Evan John Jones
The Forge of Tubal Cain - Ann Finnin
The Pillars of Tubal Cain - Nigel Aldcroft Jackson & Michael HowardLiber Nox: A Traditional Witch's Gramarye - Michael Howard
Call of the Horned Piper - Nigel Aldcroft Jackson
Masks of Misrule - Nigel Jackson
Grimore for Modern Cunning Folk - Peter Paddon
Letters from the Devil's Forest - Robin Artisson
The Witching Way of Hollow Hill - Robin Artisson
The Horn of Evenwood - Robin Artisson
Azoetia: Grimoire of the Sabbatic Craft - Andrew D. Chumbley
Opuscula Magica. Volume I: Essays on Witchcraft and the Sabbatic Tradition - Andrew D. Chumbley and Daniel A. Schulke
The Devil's Dozen-Thirteen Craft Rites of The Old One - Gemma Gary
Cecil Williamson's Book of Witchcraft-A Grimoire of the Museum of Witchcraft - Steve Patterson
Serpent Songs - Editor: Nicholaj de Mattos Frisvold
Specific Cultural Traditions:
Balkan Traditional Witchcraft - Radomir Ristic
Practical Magic in the Northern Tradition - Nigel Pennick
Irish Witchcraft and Demonology - St. John D. Seymour
The Devil's Plantation: East Anglian Lore, Witchcraft & Folk-Magic- Nigel Pearson
Traditional Witchcraft a Cornish Book of Ways - Gemma Gary
The Black Toad - Gemma Gary
Wheel of the Year - Pauline Campanelli
Witches All - Elizabeth Pepper
Irish Witchcraft from an Irish Witch - Lora O'Brien
Magical Ritual Methods - William G. Gray
Seasonal Occult Rituals - William G. Gray
Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath - Carlo Ginzburg and Raymond Rosenthal
The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth - Robert Graves
The History of the Devil: The Horned God of the West - R. Lowe Thompson
Witchcraft and Society in England and America, 1550-1750 - Marion Gibson
Cunning-Folk & Familiar Spirits: Shamanistic Visionary Traditions in Early Modern British Witchcraft and Magic - Emma Wilby
Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England - Alan MacFarlane
Singing With Blackbirds: The Survival of Primal Celtic Shamanism in Later Folk -Traditions by Stuart A. Harris Logan
The Pattern Under the Plough - George Ewart Evans. Faber and Faber.
The Secret Teachings of All Ages - Manly P. Hall.
Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy - Mircea Eliade
Witchcraft in Europe, 400-1700: A Documentary History - Alan Charles Kors and Edward Peters
Shamans Sorcerers and Saints: A Prehistory of Religion - Brian Hayden
Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe - H.R. Ellis Davidson
The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy - Ronald Hutton
Popular Magic: Cunning-folk in English History - Owen Davies
The Know How:
Complete Book of Incense, Oils & Brews - Scott Cunningham
Hoodoo, Herb and Root Magic - cat yronwode
Practical Candleburning Rituals: Spells and Rituals for Every Purpose - Raymond Buckland
Magic and Husbandry- The Folk-Lore Of Agriculture; Rites, Ceremonies, Customs, And Beliefs Connected With Pastoral Life And The Cultivation Of The Soil; With Breeding And The Care Of Cattle; With Fruit-Growing, Bees, And Fowls – Lewis Dayton Burdick
Wortcunning: For Info on plants see my other site, it's literally a giant bibliography.
Witchcraft Medicine: Healing Arts, Shamanic Practices, and Forbidden Plants - Claudia Müller-Ebeling, Christian Rätsch, and Wolf-Dieter Storl
Pharmako Trilogy - Dale Pendell
Cunningham’s Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs by Scott Cunningham
Herbal Rituals. Judith Berger
The Herb Book by John Lust
Herbal Medicine-Maker’s Handbook: A Home Manual by James Green
Magical and Ritual Use of Herbs - Richard Alan Miller
Blackberry Cove Herbal: Healing With Common Herbs in the Appalachian Wise-Woman Tradition -Linda Ours Rago
Leechcraft: Early English Charms, Plant-lore and Healing - Stephen Pollington
Witches, Midwives, and Nurses: A History of Women Healers - Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English
Viridarium Umbris: The Pleasure Garden of Shadows, by Daniel Alvin Schulke. Xoanon Publishing.
Thirteen Occult Pathways to Herbalism, Daniel Alvin Schulke
American Household Botany. 1600-1900. Judith Sumner.
A Dictionary of English Folklore - Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud
Make Merry In Step and Song: A Seasonal Treasury of Music, Mummer's Plays & Celebrations in the English Folk Tradition - Bronwen Forbes
The Folklore of Plants T.S. Thistleton Dyer
Appalachian Folk Magic:
Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia. Cavender, Anthony P.
This List from Backwaters Witch
Long Lost Friend — John George Hoffman
Frank C. Brown North Carolina Folklore collection, especially book 7
Signs, Cures and Witchery, Gerald Milnes
The Silver Bullet and other American Witch Stories, Hubert J. Davis
American Witch Stories, Hubert J. Davis
Green Hills of Magic: West Virginia Folk Tales from Europe, Ruth Anne Musick
Staubs and Ditchwater: a Friendly and Useful Introduction to Hillfolks' Hoodoo, Byron Ballard
Asfidity and Mad-Stones: A Further Ramble Through Hillfolks' Hoodoo, Byron Ballard
Other Witch's Reading Lists:
Archaic Honey's Resource List
The Witches Resistance Action List
Poison Path Resource Guide
It’s finally cold here, and I can almost taste the Winter Solstice tickling the back of my nostrils. I love seasonal flavors, chaga tea with my spicebush honey and cream, cornbreads crispy with lard on the bottom, roasted bear shoulder studded with butter and garlic, and sour kraut bubbling with life. These are some flavors you can find in the place I call home. Chestnuts roasted to caramel sweetness. Collard greens still crisp and brilliant despite the frosts steamed in apple cider vinegar with sumac spice. Local chicken roasted with cranberries from higher elevations and trifolate orange marmalade. Pear sauce from our mother pear tree poured over oat cakes with fresh whipped cream. Now I’m hungry. Are you?
The French coined the term terroir when they discussed the unique “character” ascribed to the tastes and magic of foods from specific biogeographical places. It could be the unique combination of that locality's air, water, and soil. Something undefinable that makes it special. Here in Appalachia, we have many edible plant species, wild game, and foragable mushrooms. We are blessed with abundance in this way. A unique temperate rain forest-like precipitation combined with the moderate growing season makes it possible to grow many fruits, nuts and vegetables that if were we farther north or south, would be quite difficult.
As a professional forager I do believe heartily in the nuances of the terroir of a place, the unique flavors and nutrients of the wild and cultivated foods we foster in these mountains, or wherever you call home. The wonder of foraging is that we can all be foodies. We can skip the farmer’s market, keep our hard earned dollars in our pockets and graze on the abundance of food from our yards to the deep woods. The most challenging thing is finding ways to remember that lost knowledge.
I was not raised a witch, a farmer, or a forager. I learned it all in my young adulthood by doing an apprenticeship with Natalie Bogwalker at Wild Abundance, and from many, many others. I learned from books. I learned from Youtube videos and I learned from friends. I was privileged to stumble upon the community I have in Western North Carolina, and I have to say, I finally found my home.
I was eating some kraut my friends and I made today, and I was thinking about the strange and unique flavors. If there is a terroir of food and plants and animals, I imagine there is too of magic. I want to advocate for a terroir of folk magic. A magic of place. A unique and special magic that only flows through the French Broad River and the and the Pisgah national forest. A Western Carolinian Appalachian magic terroir.
I think bioregional animism and witchcraft, or the magic of a specific place, really comes to life for me when I am foraging. I see the unique array of plants, fungi and animals that these mountains have fostered and marvel at the ancient rivers and springs that feed these dark and secret hollers. I love that my body is built from the unique soil I walk upon and the water I drink and swim in. I love that there is nowhere else on Earth quite like this.
Rediscovering local flavors is definitely still a hot topic as restaurants and groceries showcase locally grown and now even foraged fare. Rewilders and muggles alike can get behind eating from our bioregion since it just makes sense, and someday, it may be the only thing on the menu. Just as much as I want to support people in growing, foraging and sharing foodways together, I want to support and defend bioregional magical practices. In defense of folk magic, I say there is no better way to honor the places that we live, and the beings that dwell in there, then to remember and discover the ways that went before. Not just the baskets that were woven or the way that songs were sung, but the way the spirits want to be seen, the way to implore the yarrow to heal our wounds, the way to leave offerings that will please our genius loci.
I love that term. The spirit of place. It is the terroir of the spirit world. I learned it from Marcus McCoy about 8 years ago, before we ever knew each other from an article he wrote. And I see the term more and more since he popularized it, which warms my bioregional heart. The unique flavor of beings and creatures that crawl and fly and swim in our home places. No matter where we live we can directly interact with these beings.
It is also important for many of us to remember, as we seek to form relationship with the land, that we are living on stolen land, and to become entrenched in the ways of the land is not an invitation to appropriate cultural or religious practices of the indigenous peoples who came before us, and who still dwell with us. This call is an invitation to seek out and meet the spirits, not claim them or command them. It is an invitation to listen and look. To hear and to smell. To taste the land. To feed it. Bioregional witchcraft to me, means living a practice that is informed by the beings you live amongst, both human and non. It is a practice that lives and grows.
I tell my students whether we are studying Medieval herbalism or Appalachian folk charms against ghosts, that some things are not meant for us. I was born in Appalachia, but raised all over this country, and that means that those things to which I am privy are different than those things that are privy to someone who was born and raised here in these mountains that I call home. I do not mourn that, for what good would that do me. It is a reality to live in the sometimes-discomfort of realizing we all have access to different things and have different work to do. Living in shame or envy is not the answer. Just as we face the privileges afforded to us by our whiteness, class and/or ability, we must closely and lovingly examine the traditions we engage in for spiritual gain as well.
We all have a pagan past, it’s actually amazing. I see a tendency, within myself included, to idealize Old things and shun creating New things in our witchcraft practices, when in fact what we are practicing is the piecing together of broken ancient ways. We can create, reimagine and rebirth vibrant bioregional witchcraft practices from the broken pieces that the Others tried to stamp out. We can do this by forming relationships with the land around us, and by weaving it together with the practices our ancestors left us. We can live something ancient by making it new and vital.
We do not have to have perfect unbroken witch-lineages, we do not have to speak spells that were written in the year 100 A.D. We can find a new way for many of us who do have have access to unbroken traditions to live on this land and observe the seasonal changes in ways that feel authentic. We can do it without spiritual picking-and-choosing in appropriative ways that cause harm to indigenous folks and POC. We can find a new way to forage, to farm and to listen. It is both Old and New. And this, I think, is a fine thing.
The Bone Mother is touching the leaves of the trees and watching them drop brown, red, gold, and dead. The beautiful process of Autumn is begun in the mountains, though it's been hotter than Hades these last few days. Our Harvest Home celebration has come and gone, the autumnal equinox tucked into the skirt-folds of the Old Year. We're spending our days here at the Hawk picking tomatoes and peppers, drying nettles, tulsi basil and calendula, and beginning the acorn season. Though abundance surrounds us, the scent of woodsmoke is on the evening wind and we've made our first fire in the fireplace tonight.
I'm brimming with Spring like excitement over my Fall Classes. I am especially excited about my Witchlore class and my Poison Path: Poison Plants of Appalachia class. In preparation, I wanted to talk about one of my favorite friends in my witch's garden. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus). Though we don't often think of this plant as part of the poison pantheon, I'll tell you, it is.
Mullein is not native to Appalachia. It was brought here from Europe and Asia where it originated. Some say it traveled with the Puritans for use in the Physic gardens of the New World. This garden escapee quickly naturalized throughout North America and entered the folk medicine and magical systems of peoples across this land. It was Mullein's usefulness in medicine that made it so popular, as well as its usefulness against evil as we shall see.
This plant was used to treat many things, but overwhelmingly it was used to treat respiratory illnesses and colds. The leaves were smoked or made into a tea, often sweetened with honey. This practice can be seen in many places worldwide and in America from the Ozarks to Appalachia and even all the way to Canada. Though often considered a gentle medicine, it used in more serious respiratory conditions like Tuberculosis, or consumption as it was called due to the way it consumed you.
In Appalachia it was one of the most popular plants used in herbal medicine (Cavendar). It was chewed, smoked and made into tea for all manners of lung ailments including TB. It was eventually incorporated into the medical practices of Native peoples in the area as well as the African American folk medicine lexicon. Sometimes it was mixed with brown sugar and wild cherry bark, or rabbit tobacco and horehound with coughs. Salt and mullein tea was used to bathe swollen body parts and the leaves themselves bound around limbs to reduce swelling in injuries. Whooping cough and malaria also called for the mullein. It doesn't seem like there was much Mullein couldn't soothe.
I recently used the roots of Mullein for a stubborn bladder infection with much success. The root decoction was used in Appalachia for this purpose, and I had never heard of this use. After doing some research, I tried it on myself and I was pleased with it all around I chopped a 1/4 cup of root, steeped 15 minutes in a mason jar and drank the tea throughout the day. By the following morning my urgency to urinate, pain and "awareness" of the discomfort I had been feeling had passed. I did it for one more day after to ensure it was really passed. This is one of the reasons I love folk medicine, for this week I also lost my health insurance, and I was able to provide for myself by looking to the wisdom of the people who lived here before. I harvested this mullein from my land and made it fresh. Bless this land. Bless these herbs.
There is a surprising amount of research done on this plant that verifies its ancient uses. In a study by Turker and Camper, aqueous Mullein leaf extracts were shown to be effective against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms, with the activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae rivaling that of the Erythromycin control (1). The use for external inflammation has also been discovered to be an action of the constituent verbascoside which is found in this powerful plant. In one study,
"K. pneumoniae and S. aureus showed sensitivity to the Mullein samples tested, which may explain why Mullein is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory disorders (caused by K. pneumoniae and S. aureus) and urinary tract infections (caused by K. pneumoniae). Our results confirm that the most effective preparation is an infusion (steeping in hot water) or decoction (boiling in hot water). According to McCutcheon et al. (1992), methanol extracts showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, Mycobacter phlei and S. aureus." (2)
I do so love when science, history, magic and medicine meet.
Mullein was a key ingredient in folk magic as well in Appalachia, just as it was in the Old World. If you bent a stick of mullein towards the house of the one you fancied, you could tell if they felt the same way about you by checking in a few days to see if it has grown up straight again. If it was standing tall again, your true-love loved you back, if it was dead, well, you get the picture. In the Ozarks it goes a little different. If the mullein bends towards a person's house, the one who tends the mullein loves them.
Mullein has many folk names, Aaron’s Rod, Blanket leaf, Candle wick, Torches, Quaker’s rouge, and Hedge or Hag Taper. Some say the folk name "Hag Taper" comes from its use by witches as candles for their rites, but this is a more modern practice as there is more evidence that the name may have come from the word "Hedge" rather than association with much witchery in the past. This plant often grew in hedgerows, or borders of wild plants between pastures in the British Isles.
The dried stalks dipped in tallow were used historically as torches for funerals in Roman times, so it does have links to death and the Otherworld. It has also been used to drive away evil in both Europe and Asia, it actually protects against magic as we can see in the tale of how Ulysses used mullein to protect himself against the wiles of Circe. You can also in the Anglo- Saxon version of Apuleius, translated by Cockayne,
“If one beareth with him one twig of this wort, he will not be terrified with any awe, nor will a wild beast hurt him, or any evil coming near.”
In Germany the Himmelbrand (heavenly fire), or Konigskerze (king’s candle) was used during the Rites of harvest times. In the Middle Ages it was said that Mary herlsef traveled through the land this time of year blessing all the mullein. This is where another name for it comes from, "Our Lady's Candle". A saying arose from this as well, “Our beloved Lady goes through the land, she carries mullein in her hand!” It was even said sometimes she touched the sick with the wand of mullein and healed them. From the excellent book Witchcraft Medicine we get the ritual involved in picking the Mullein and other herbs for use in the Rites of this time of the year:
The herbs for the August festival (Lammas) must be picked before sun rise by women barefoot, speaking the charms, silently and naked, without being seen and without thinking any thought. Never cut with an iron knife or dig with an iron spade, for it would take away the herb's power.
According to Frazer in The Golden Bough, it was passed through the Midsummer fire to make a charm to protect the cattle herd. It was also placed in butter churns in Ireland if the butter would not come. Mullein is so useful it has gained a host of astrological associations. Culpepper gave it Saturn, Agrippa Mercury, Junius gave it Jupiter and many today the Sun for it’s merry yellow flowers.
Mullein of course has many other useful purposes. It was used to dye ladies hair yellow in ancient Rome. It was also used as a fish poison in Germany and Britain for many centuries, a practice which followed settlers to Appalachia. There is scientific evidence that the seeds are narcotic to an extent and would cause breathing issues for fish, allowing fisherman and women to gather many at once. This practice was frowned upon by gentry and royalty as unsportman-like in Europe and a practice of common folk, but when putting dinner on the table is a life or death matter, than one does what one must. One old North Carolina resident said of his German forefathers, who immigrated in the 1720s:
"They'd heard 'bout the new land 'cross the waters 'n decided to bring thangs that'd help 'em git a start. Stinging fish was one easy way of gittin' food at first, so feltwort seeds were brung 'long".
Pennsylvania Germans used it to keep lice out of the pig stye as well. Not only did it keep away evil, it kept away pests. Aside from dipping the great stalks in tallow and make large, outdoor torches, the fluff was also used to twist into candle wicks. Hence another name for this lovely plant, Candlewick.
To Make a Mullein Leaf Candle for Necromantic Works:
Take a single Mullein leaf and when it is dry but not terribly crispy, roll it gently into a long tube. Dip this into beeswax or tallow and light. I stand them in sand in a fireproof bowl, like my cast iron cauldron. They are smoky, but the light and flame are lovely. Use these in Rites of the Dark year, or for spirit work.
To Make a Hag Taper:
Gather entire dried stalks and dip or brush with tallow or wax. Stand these in the same manner as mentioned above, in sand or drive into the ground away from flammables and watch carefully. As All Hallows approaches, imagine your Harvest rites lit by grand torches. It has quite an effect I think.
Kentucky Cold Remedy from Frank C. Brown:
Stew mullein roots, brown sugar or honey and wild cherry bark together for a half hour for coughs, add a bit of apple cider vinegar. Take 1 tablespoon no more than 3 times a day.
There is so much more to this plant. Poison seeds, healing leaves, flower and roots, a plant used to cure and kill, well fish at least. If this tickles your fancy come join us for the Poison Plants in Appalachia class October 18th here at the Hawk and Hawthorne. Bless the Harvest, Bless this Land. Stay well loves and keep the Old Ways.
Cavender, Anthony P. Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia. Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, c2003.
Cockayne, Thomas. translation of Herbarium Apuleii Platonici is online in Google Books Look for: Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England: Preface. Herbarium ...By Thomas Oswald Cockayne, Sextus Placitus (Papyriensis.), Dioscorides Pedanius (of Anazarbos.) books.google.com search for felt wort. p. 177.
Foxfire Fund, Inc. Mountain Folk Remedies : The Foxfire Americana Library (9). Anchor, 2011.
Hopman Ellen, Evert. Secret Medicines from Your Garden Plants for Healing Spirituality and Magic. Rochester, 2016.
Larry W. Mitich. “Common Mullein: The Roadside Torch Parade.” Weed Technology, vol. 3, no. 4, 1989, pp. 704–705.
Lehner, Ernst, and Johanna Lehner. Folklore and Symbolism of Flowers, Plants and Trees. Literary Tudor Publishing, 2011.
(1) McCarthy, Eibhlín, and Jim M. O’Mahony. “What’s in a Name? Can Mullein Weed Beat TB Where Modern Drugs Are Failing?” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM 2011 (2011): 239237. PMC.
Moss, Kay. Southern Folk Medicine, 1750-1820. University of South Carolina Press, 1999.
Riaz, Muhammad, et al. "Common Mullein, Pharmacological and Chemical Aspects." Revista Brasileira De Farmacognosia, vol. 23, 01 Nov. 2013, pp. 948-959.
(2) Turker, Arzu Ucar and N.D Camper. "Biological Activity of Common Mullein, a Medicinal Plant." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 82, 01 Jan. 2002, pp. 117-125.
Watts, Donald. Dictionary of Plant Lore. Academic Press, 2007.
White, Newman Ivey and Frank Clyde Brown. The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore; the Folklore of North Carolina. Durham, N.C., Duke University Press [1952-64], 1952.
Wilhelm, Gene. “The Mullein: Plant Piscicide of the Mountain Folk Culture.” Geographical Review, vol. 64, no. 2, 1974, pp. 235–252.
Spicebush, or Lindera benzoin, is my favorite plant. I literally have no idea why. It's not especially beautiful, or magically potent in medicine, but its unique, delicious fragrance, flavor and brilliant, abundant berries makes it my favorite none the less. You can see my post from last year to learn more about the specifics and history of this lovely native plant, but quickly I'll highlight its magic.
Spicebush is in the laurel family, alongside another amazing native plant rich with lore and medicine, sassafras. Spicebush is dioecious, meaning it has male and female flowers on separate plants. It's unique, papery thin leaves ensure this understory plant can maximize its sunlight absorption.
Two nights ago, I learned that a person who was special in my life some years ago has left this Earth. It was a strange and hollow feeling. We had lost touch for a variety of reasons, and details aside, I was feeling very dark and introspective yesterday. As I've mentioned in the past, foraging and woods wandering is always my go-to when I feel darkness surround me. I used to share sweetness and foraging with this person. So when I saw the Spicebush berries hanging in huge abundance from the bushes in the forest near my home, I immediately knew what to do. This person and I used to live together, you see, at my old property, which we had all named Lindera after the robust spicebush population on our land.
I make Spicebush honey for many reasons, one being its great medicine for colds and flu, and heck, it tastes awesome. Somewhat spicy, orangey almost. You can use this honey to add to other medicinal teas, drizzle on hot cornbread, or just straight up eat by the spoonful when your feeling the need for a bit of warming fire.
First off. Place spicebush berries in a clean, dry jar. I add enough good vodka to the berries to lightly coat them when swirling the jar around before I add the honey. See above.
I like to rough the berries up a bit with a spoon. I smoosh 'em around to let that alcohol and honey soak on into the fragrant fruits.
Then I just plop that honey right on top. I use a local Haw Creek Honey because our bees need all they have to make it through the winter.
I stir it up to mix the alcohol and honey. I like to add a bit of alcohol when I use fresh herbs in honey, as there is always a risk of things going off if they have water content. I'll let this sit for about 3-5 days and then gently heat the jar in a water bath and strain out the berries. I like to use the left over, honey-covered berries in a short decoction to make spicebush chai tea. Recipe coming. Soon.
When I enjoy this honey in a few weeks. I will do so while thinking of my lost friend. I make this in honor of them. And I hope that they are in a place of peace and comfort after a long struggle. My struggle here is short and fleeting in comparison to what they went through, but these small comforts help warm my heart until it feels strong again. Hold your loved ones close, and let the plants and their magic hold you as well.
Take heart my loves. With the recent fascist attacks in Charlottesville we must hold our loved ones close and take care of each other, and our selves. This is an overwhelming time emotionally, and as a person with an anxiety disorder (which is what I choose to call my experience of extreme anxiety), I know right now taking care of my inner landscape and that of my loved ones is paramount.
As I see the boldness that racist, sexist, homophobic, anti-Semitic, etc. cowards are acting with against our comrades I can choose two options in my reactions: I can feel hopeless, defeated and let the reality of how little we have progressed as white people in the last 100 years stifle me, or I can ask myself, what can I do? Well, I'm a Witch. I am a forager. I am a medicine maker. There are some things I can do. Even little old me. I hope sharing this information freely helps you feel a little more able to care for and feed you and yours, and to soothe your aching heart. Also, don't forget to hex fascists if you feel up for it.
In wild crafting and foraging, the rare mushrooms and fantastical, fleeting fruits get all the love. But what about those humble standbys? Who will always be there to feed us? To soothe us? I want to give love to the violet, the humbler heart of the Earth, who feeds me April thru November, who I make into salads, tea, cooked dishes, decorate cakes and cookies with and drink sparking refreshers purpled with its syrups.
Violet is one of 525 to 600 species in the Violaceae family. All of whom are edible. Most occur in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but a few have wandered elsewhere. Where I live in Western North Carolina, I commonly see a few different species, but on the land I live, the common blue violet (Viola soraria) is queen. Native to the eastern United States, this plant has an interesting history. Strangely enough, the happy purple, yellow and white flowers are often associated with death in old plant lore, as well as constancy and innocence, which seem much more appropriate for a little purple flower which is entirely edible and nourishing.
Few plants represent both hope and death in folklore and mythology. The Romans heaped violets on the graves of young children as a symbol of both mourning and hope. Hamlet displays this play between hope and loss when Ophelia tells Laertes that the violets themselves have died of grief:
"I would give you some violets, but they withered all when my father
They are also linked to images of death and rebirth, as in the story of Persephone and her dual residencies in both the Underworld and in our world, where the violets bloom to herald her return each Spring. Aside from nourishing our bodies. The violet reminds us that even in death there is a promise of birth, even in destruction there is a promise of growth.
Despite violets association with mourning, to dream of them is thought in many countries to be a herald of good luck. When I see them in large clumps, as they tend to grow, I feel the robust abundance of their medicine, food and magic, as if unseen eyes are watching me from some dark place and whispering, "we have all you need, take care, o take care."
From our sweet friend Madame Grieve we know violets were even mentioned by Homer and Virgil. They were used by the Athenians 'to moderate anger,' to procure sleep and 'to comfort and strengthen the heart.' Interestingly enough in Macer's Herbal (tenth century) the Violet is among the many herbs which were considered powerful against 'wykked sperytis.' (Wicked spirits for those of us unfamiliar with 10th century creative spelling.)
Use the powdered leaf of violet in your charm bags against evil, from both the dead and the living. The root is strongly purgative and laxative due to its alkaloid content so do not ingest it as most species case nausea and vomiting. However, the somewhat robust roots can be used for alraune magic or fetishes for love work. I also use the roots to purge or drive away a person or more often a spirit that I'd prefer move elsewhere. The violet's association with death, especially of the young, and hope make it a fine root to work with in necromantic or ghostly endeavors when dealing with the spirits of departed children.
In rural Germany, they decked the bridal bed and cradles of girl children with violets--this was done by Kelts and Greeks as well. Purple is a color for all humans, but magically, if one needs to call upon the feminine aspects of the universe, violet may be your ally.
Violets are nutritious and useful medicinally in a huge way, and my friend and mentor Juliet espouses on this greatly in her awesome post about violet. I eat them cooked like spinach, dried for winter tea, soups and stews, and even fried crisp in coconut oil or butter. They are lovely with mushrooms as well.
In the Middle Ages we can see the great association of violet with the heart through its folk name "Heartease". It's perfect little heart shaped leaves could be seen through the Doctrine of Signatures to bring joy and settle an unquiet heart. It was not just used to gladden though, this gentle plant also has been used externally for serious ailments of the skin. Hildegard von Bingen, an 11th century abbess, visionary mystic and herbalist used violets to treat skin cancers externally:
"Take violets, press out their juice, and strain it through a cloth. Add olive oil one-third weight of the juice and take just as much billy goat fat as violet juice. Boil everything in a pot and prepare a salve."
Leaf palasters were also used on nasty wounds and boils historically, this cooling, moistening plant is perfect for such applications. Associated according to Culpepper with Venus, this plant can also be employed in all magical workings of love and the heart, especially where the passions have cooled a long, lasting love is growing.
Daniels, Cora Linn, and C. M. Stevens. Encyclopaedia of Superstitions, Folklore, and the Occult Sciences of the World. a Comprehensive Library of Human Belief and Practice in the Mysteries of Life through More than Six Thousand Years of Experience and Progress ... University Press of the Pacific, 2003.
Madame Grieve's Violet Article
Juliet Blankenspoor's excellent article on Violet
Susan Wittig Albert's works on Violet
The early Spring of the year is past and early Summer it seems, has taken hold. This brings up thoughts of Spring tonics and other Spring practices. Cleaning, fixing, and starting anew. Though I want to focus on the uses of the wood of this lovely native, shrubby tree, I also want to wade through it's amazing uses in all the other realms it occupies. So let's meet Sassafras albidum, Sassafras, Winauk, cinnamon wood, ague tree, sassafrax, or saloop.
This native tree is rife with folklore, medicinal and culinary uses. I love it, and I have to say, though some accuse me of saying this of every plant I meet, it is truly one of my most favorites. Sassafras is a native memeber of the Lauraceae family, and is one of three extant species. Early European colonists in America noted that the plant was called winauk by Native Americans in Delaware and Virginia and pauane by the Timucua. Native Americans distinguished between white sassafras and red sassafras, which to be clear refers to the same plant but to different parts with distinct colors and uses(1). Sassafras albidum is a fairly common "weed tree" which ranges from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, and south to central Florida and eastern Texas, in North America. It is also a key ingredient in Appalachian Spring tonics.
In Appalachian folk medicine, you can think of blood like the sap of a person. It rises in Spring and falls in Winter. It can be augmented and moved by taking certain herbs and tonics. A tonic being an herbal preparation that is used for the maintenance of health rather than the acute treatment of symptoms of a disease. That's how I think of it.
To move the slow blood of Winter in Spring, there were many traditional plant medicines taken and prepared in the mountains. Some of the tastiest are sassafras, spicebush, cherry bark, and black or sweet birch. Bitter herbs also make up the other class of Spring tonics. Dandelion, burdock, dock, poke, wild onion, ramp, strong tea of red clover blossoms, yellow root, and nettles all share mineral rich or liver support properties. Or, well, they are at least very pungent.
Sassafras is often easily identified by its unique leaf shapes, for it has what is botanically known as heterophylly, or multiple leaf shapes on one plant. It has the single lobe, the two lobbed “mitten”, and the three lobbed “dinosaur” foot as I likes to call it. I have even recently found a 5 lobed sassafras on Mill Ridge in WNC.
It was used by First Nations folks in our bioregion and eventually passed into settler use as well. It was touted as a blood cleanser and included in recipes for the Spring tonics with plants like spicebush (Lindera benzoin), mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and other fragrant or bitter herbs.
The modern herbalist Stephen Harrod Buhner (Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers, Brewers Publications, 1998) says:
"Sassafras was the original herb used in all “root” beers. They were all originally alcoholic, and along with a few other medicinal beers — primarily spruce beers — were considered “diet” drinks, that is, beers with medicinal actions intended for digestion, blood tonic action and antiscorbutic properties. The original “root” beers contained sassafras, wintergreen flavorings (usually from birch sap), and cloves or oil of cloves. Though Rafinesque notes [in 1829] the use of leaves and buds, the root bark is usually used, both traditionally and in contemporary herbal practice."
In Appalachia, its uses were first shared with Spanish and Europeans settlers. It had a myriad of uses to the Cherokee as a tea. The Cherokee even used it for weight reduction, which passed into use by European settlers and is still present today in the folk lexicon. Sassafras was one of the first plants exported to Europe from the New World in bulk, for it came to be thought of as a panacea and was also enjoyed as a social beverage with milk and sugar in European coffee houses. Indeed it was even thought to cure syphilis, and was second only to mercury in its application until it was decided that it did little to stop the ‘social disease’. If only Tom Doula had known...
As an amulet, wearing pieces of the sliced root around the neck was said to aid in the pain of teething, while wearing a bag of the same was a charm to prevent general illness. In North Carolina, carrying some root pieces in one’s pocket would produce the same effect. In some African American conjure traditions, it is associated with financial affairs. Placing a piece of the root in a purse or wallet is said to prevent one’s money from running out.
Interestingly enough, there are also taboo’s surrounding not just the root but the wood. To burn sassafras was deemed unlucky, and in Kentucky, it was believed that burning the wood or even leaves of the sassafras would surely cause the transgressor's mules or horses to die. It is difficult to discover where this belief originates, for it was noted among Native and settlers alike. The wood had further uses as a stirring stick for making soap in the dark of the moon and to build beds that would protect the sleeper from disturbances from witches and other evil spirits. Ships built with sassafras hulls were deemed safe from shipwreck, while chicken coops built with sassafras roosting poles were reputedly free of lice. Sassafras' fresh, fragrant leaves were also used to pack away winter clothing to keep away moths.
Certain medicine men among the Cherokee also used the root magically. They would chew it and rub it upon their faces and hands after being exposed to a sick person, whether biologically or spiritually, to safeguard their own magical abilities. It functions as a cleanser of "bad" or "sick" energy. Sassafras was also an ingredient in treating the wounds caused by magical projectiles known as ga:dhidv, which are the supernatural missiles of conjurers. It is interesting to draw parallels between the medicinal uses of sassafras root as a cleanser of blood and its Cherokee uses as a cleanser of energy or spiritual contamination. Sassafras has many more ethnobotanical uses, and it is interesting to modern folk magic practitioners to note the correlations between its ability to ward off illness and pestilence as well as attract prosperity both in its medical and magical uses.
The issues of safrole, the possibly carcinogenic chemical which lurks within the roots of the Sassafras is a tricky question. Undoubtedly it exists, but whether it is harmful when used as an occasional, traditionally prepared tea is the question. Check out my friend Kate's thesis on safrole if you want to get really nerdy with it, but as with most things, do your own research and see what you think. I drink it. I'm not worried.
If you'd like to get the whole story folk magical story on Sassafras and other important native Appalachian roots, check out my piece, as well as the other fabulous works in the Third Volume of Verdant Gnosis.
What can I make with it?
Tea, syrup and confections! Boil those roots to get a deep red, lovely tea. You can also use the leaves dried and powdered like file gumbo powder to thicken soups and stews. I like to boil the roots, combine with honey and add bubbly water for a "root beer".
Wood: furniture, interior and exterior joinery, windows, doors and door frames , kitchen cabinets and paneling, boat building, canoe paddles, gates, barn doors, wagon beds and fence posts. Sassafras is very resistant to heartwood decay, but in exposed damp conditions the sapwood is vulnerable to powder post beetle. Oh, and probably a fine spoon.
Use the chips of root bark for protective magics or craft a bed, gate, or object to be free from the influence of malevolent spirits. Burn the wood chips as a bioregional incense to rid a place of negative influence, spirits/ persons.
I like to make a "blasting rod" type wand from this wood to free places, people and objects from the sway of these spirits as well. It's twisty nature really lends it to this purpose.
(1) Austin, Daniel F., and P. Narodny. Honychurch. Florida Ethnobotany: Fairchild Tropical Garden, Coral Gables, Florida Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona: With More than 500 Species Illustrated by Penelope N. Honychurch. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2004.
Kilpatrick, Alan. The Night Has a Naked Soul. Witchcraft and Sorcery among the Western Cherokee. (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997).
Rupp, Rebecca. Red Oaks & Black Birches: The Science and Lore of Trees. Pownal, VT: Storey Communications, 1990.
Tantaquidgeon, Gladys. "Mohegan Medical Practices, Weather-lore and Superstitions." Smithsonian Institution- Bureau of Ethnology Annual Report 44 (1928): 264-70.
Thomas, Daniel Lindsey, and Lucy Blayney Thomas. Kentucky Superstitions. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1920. #2993.
UCLA Folklore Archives 1_6728.
White and Brown. The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore; the Folklore of North Carolina, Collected by Dr. Frank C. Brown during the Years 1912 to 1943, in Collaboration with the North Carolina Folklore Society.
White, Newman Ivey, and Frank Clyde Brown. The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore; the Folklore of North Carolina. Durham: Duke University Press [1952-64], 1952.
Willard, Fred L., Victor G. Aeby, and Tracy Carpenter-Aeby. "Sassafras in the New World and the Syphilis Exchange." Journal Of Instructional Psychology 41, no. 1-4 (March 2014): 3-9.
Vance, Randolph. Ozark Magic and Folklore. (New York, N.Y. : Dover Publications, 1964, c1947).
Yronwode, Catherine. Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic: A Materia Magica of African-American Conjure. Lucky Mojo Curio Company: Root Doctor, 2002.
Oh my gosh. I got interviewed on Rune Soup. Fan girl moment!
Check it out!
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